Answer the questions and define the vocabulary.
Chapter14: Globalization and the Geography of Networks
1. Globalization is the inevitable outcome of modern spatial processes.
2. The World Bank, IMF and WTO are seen as carrying out the Washington Consensus.
3. According to Castells, networks lead to increased regional inequities.
4. Miami is more linked to Latin America than Los Angeles.
5. Study of participatory development showed higher levels of success among the poorest farmers in rural India because they had the most to gain.
6. Central to globalization is
7. According to Manuel Castells, a set of interconnected nodes is a(n)
8. Annual meetings of the World Social Forum—a network of socialist organizations—takes place in
9. The annual meeting of the World Economic Forum—representing large corporations and political leaders of rich countries—takes place in
10. Which of the following cities established a “local currency
Define the vocabulary and answer the questions.
Chapter13: Human Environment
1. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene was the ________ Glaciation.
2. The greatest threat to human existence to come from any source was a volcanic eruption occurring about 73,500 years ago. The volcano was called
3. The geologic epoch, characterized by global warming, in which we are now living is the
4. The Little Ice Age began to affect Europe in which century?
5. The climatic record documenting the beginning of the Little Ice Age was partially pieced together by using farmer’s diaries. Those of _________ were most useful.
6. Growing understanding of the affects of the Little Ice Age leads to the suggestion that the chief cause of the rapid collapse of the Jamestown colony may well have been
7. A tsunamis wave result from
8. Depletion of the ozone layer is caused by the release of __________ into the atmosphere.
9. Climatologist-geographer Alfred Wegener used his spatial view of the world to develop the theory of
10. The latest Pangaea break up began _______ years ago.
11. The boundaries of rocky crustal plates (theory of plate tectonics) are associated with
12. Over the past century the pace of human environmental change has
13. The world distribution of precipitation is concentrated in
14. The distribution of precipitation over the areas of the Earth, with concentrations in some areas and paucity in others, is sustained through a process called the
15. Fifty times as much water is stored in _______________ in the United States as falls as precipitation each year.
16. One of the great ecological disasters of the twentieth century occurred in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan and involves the
17. Increasingly, people have come to depend on water sources
18. The Sea of Galilee forms a large freshwater reservoir in the Jordan Valley and is the source of most of the water for which of the following countries?
19. What percentage of the Earth’s surface is covered by water?
20. Plant life and photosynthesis began about 1.5 billion years ago and increased the ___________ level in the atmosphere.
21. The Earth’s most recent experience with mass volcanism was between _________ million years ago.
22. The Little Ice Age put an end to a period of flourishing ________________________ in Ming Dynasty China.
23. The eruption of the Tambora volcano on the island of Sumatra resulted in what has been called the “year without a summer
Define Vocabulary and answer the questions.
Chapter12: Industry and Services
1. England not only held a monopoly over products that were in world demand at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, but also a monopoly on
2. In Britain, the proximity of what three things gave an unsurpassed advantage to the development of early industry?
3. Industry diffusing to Western Europe involved, as in Britain, the locational criteria: coalfields, water communication, and ____________.
4. The Ruhr industrial area is connected to its port by
5. Some industrial regions emerge because of their raw materials combinations. Which of the following is not an example of such a region?
6. The relocation of industry to cities like Paris and London was facilitated by
7. Nike, headquartered in Oregon, employs 20,000 people in that state. What percentage are employed in shoe manufacture/assembly?
8. In 1925, one area of Boston had sales offices for over _____ shoe factories.
9. In the early eighteenth century, British textiles were manufactured
10. Who actually laid the groundwork for the colonial expansion of Europe?
11. The first power source of the Industrial Revolution was
12. Burning coal in a near vacuum produced a much hotter burning, pure carbon fuel called
13. The first railroad in England was opened in
14. Which of the four classifications of industry must locate where the resources are found?
15. The increase in time and cost with distance is referred to as
16. When Alfred Weber published his book Theory of the Location of Industries (1909), what did he select as the critical determinant of regional industrial location?
17. If a substantial number of enterprises all develop in, or move to, the same area the factor is called
18. Hotelling’s location analysis emphasized the role of
19. Industrialization occurred along an axis from Northern France through North-Central Germany to Czech Republic and South Poland. This axis correlates with________ as a locational factor.
20. Europe’s greatest industrial complex is
21. In which major world manufacturing country does industry not lie near sources of raw material?
22. Japan became the world’s second largest economy with ½ of the population of the United States and _____ of the land area.
23. Japan’s dominant industrial region is
24. The Kansai district is found along _____________, Japan’s major waterway.
25. Mass production of standardized goods using assembly line techniques is referred to as:
26. Fast, flexible production of small lots with outsourcing around the world is referred to as:
27. Saxony (Leipzig and Dresden) emphasize this type of manufacturing:
28. Manufacturing in North America began in _____ as early as late colonial times.
29. Raw materials play an important role in industrial location. In the northeastern United States, what is the orientation of this industry?
30. New York City, like other large urban centers with great ports, is called a break of bulk location because
31. Although no match for Canada’s Ontario industrial district, the one great advantage of the Montreal area is
32. Canada’s industrial southern Ontario links two parts of the U.S. Manufacturing Belt: Buffalo and
33. This area is one of Russia’s oldest manufacturing centers.
34. After World War I, this region produced about 90 percent of the coal needed to help the then Soviet Union industrialize.
35. Russia’s “Detroit
Define all vocabulary and print and answer the following review questions.
1. Demand for organic foods is greatest in
2. Which is not an example of a primary economic activity?
3. Guatemala’s agricultural sector produces 22.7% of the country’s GDP and employs _____% of the labor force.
4. The ratio of percent of labor force to percent of GDP in the agricultural sector of Canada (3% of labor force : 2.3% of GDP) indicates that Canada’s agricultural sector is ______________ intensive.
5. Cattle were domesticated in and came to be an important cultural feature of
6. Of the 148 species of large herbivore (over 100 lbs.) _______ have been domesticated and all of these were domesticated over 4,500 years ago.
7. Which of the following is not an example of a hunting and gathering group that still existed in the early 2000s?
8. By 1992, the most widely grown crop variety on Earth was a product of the Green Revolution called IR36, which was a variety of
9. In the 1940s, American philanthropists funded research on this crop. By 1960, Mexico no longer depended on imports as production had risen dramatically. The crop is:
10. Often crops are associated with regions other than the one in which they were developed. For example, the “Irish
Define all vocabulary.
Answer and print the following questions.
1. Which does not make up a portion of Colombia’s GNP?
2. Which Asian nation listed below has a per capita GNP above the world average?
3. A large component of survival in countries with low per capita GNP is
4. High levels of development can be determined by measurement of access to railways, roads, airline connections, telephones, radio and television, etc. These are collectively referred to as
5. Dependency ratio measures:
6. Which is not among the five stages of Rostow’s development model?
7. Rostow’s model, developed in the early 1960s, was based upon the experience of
8. Even if the Gross National Product (GNP) index is used to measure the well-being of a country, it will fail to show
9. Quarry workers, quarry owners, stone cutters, exporters, designers and architects, builders, tile and stone distributors, etc. represent an example of the links connecting producers and consumers in a world market. This is an example of
10. ________________ processes in the commodity chain involve technology, education, research and development, and high wages.
11. Which of the following is not associated with core production processes?
12. Microcredit programs have been successful in many places with the exception of
13. Gross national product (GNP) measures the value of officially recorded goods and services produced within a country.
14. In Africa and other developing regions the output in the subsistence agricultural sector is not included in GNP calculations.
15. The use of energy efficient process and devices may actually lower GNP.
16. A high percentage of laborers engaged in the production of food staples indicates a low, overall level of development.
17. Core-periphery theory can operate at a number of scales. For example, Los Angeles can be described as the core of Southern California.
18. The word “development
Define all vocabulary and answer the following questions.
Chapter09: Urban Geography
1. Which is not related to urbanization processes of the second urban revolution?
2. In a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city, town or village is inversely proportional to its rank in the system (i.e. if the largest city is 4 million the second will be 2 million or 1/2 , the third will be 1/3 and so on). This is known as
3. A hinterland reveals the _________ of each settlement.
4. Paris and Mexico City are many times larger than the second-ranked city in their respective countries. Their disproportionate size illustrates
5. The response of the urban system of the American South and Southwest to the influx of migrants over the past three decades conforms with predictions of central place theory. This is called the ________ phenomenon.
6. In Burgess’ concentric zone model, the zone of transition became
7. Peter Muller’s analysis of suburbanization indicated that suburbs were
8. Where did the first urban development originate?
9. Which is not among the components which enabled the formation of the first cities?
10. Ancient towns and cities owed much of their success and growth to certain site advantages. Which of the following was not one of these advantages?
11. What structures dominated the urban landscape of the ancient Mesopotamian cities?
12. In which of the following regions did urbanization develop first?
13. Which feature typical of ancient urbanization was not present in the Nile River Valley hearth?
14. Ancient cities were not large by modern standards. The cities of Mesopotamian and the Nile Valley probably had populations of
15. Urban places in the ancient world were
16. Athens may have been the largest city in the world at the time of its existence, with a population estimated at
17. The Parthenon of Athens is a structure typical of ancient Greek cities. It is a(n)
18. Rome created a huge urban system. The integration of the Roman Empire was greatly facilitated by a
19. The multiple nuclei model of urban structure developed by Harris and Ullman arose from the idea that _______ was losing its dominant position in the metropolitan city.
20. A trade area is the area of economic reach of a particular city, town or village and reflects economic and spatial interaction between the settlement and its surrounding area.
21. Burgess’ concentric zone model emphasized homogenous pie shaped wedges of land use extending from the CBD to the cities edge.
22. Latin American cities feature the deterioration of inner city neighborhoods (slums) similar to their North American counterparts.
23. Subsaharan Africa is both the least urbanized and the slowest urbanizing realm in the world.
24. Southeast Asian cities are exceptional in that they have significantly large middle-class residential areas.
25. Gated communities do not exist in communist countries ruled by egalitarian values (e.g. China).
26. Urban sprawl is closely associated with rapid urban population growth.
27. The core of a city is called the
28. What term came into use to describe the spatial components of the metropolis of the late twentieth century?
29. After 1970, new suburban downtowns (edge cities) were spawned in the outer city of Los Angeles, with their leading concentrations
30. Mexico City and Sao Paolo are examples of
31. In Latin America, which of the following does not accurately describe the typical CBD?
32. In the Latin American city, where are the homes of the most impoverished and unskilled residents?
33. The layout of a city, the physical form and structure, is referred to as
34. Which of the following countries is least urbanized?
35. Human communities have existed for 100,00 years, but some did not start to grow into larger places until about _______ years ago.
36. The very early developing agricultural societies were
37. Expanding on the Greek city’s theater, the Romans built the world’s first
38. The relative location of a city refers to its
39. The manufacturing city (post Industrial Revolution) first emerged in
40. A structural element of many Latin American cities, the disamenity sector, is illustrated by the
41. Which of the following is both the least urbanized and the most rapidly urbanizing realm of the world?
42. Most African central cities actually have how many CBD’s?
43. The focal point of the Southeast Asian city is the
44. In Southeast Asian cities the alien commercial zone is dominated by
45. Comparing Luanda, Angola to a suburb of Tokyo one is struck by the fact that the urban morphology reflects the fact that Angola lacks a __________ class.
46. The huge influx of population from rural to urban areas in peripheral or semi-peripheral areas find housing in
47. If cities in the poorer parts of the world share a common characteristic, it may result from
48. Segregation in the United States was reinforced by the financial practice known as
49. In core area cities the practice of buying up and rehabilitating deteriorating housing which resulted in the raising of housing values and a social change in neighborhoods is called
50. The core area suburbs are experiencing a process of the tearing down of existing suburban homes and the building of very large, standardized looking homes known as
51. The decline in density and the spread of cities associated with the building of freeways in the second half of the twentieth century has been pejoratively referred to as
52. Marxist geographer David Harvey is one of the strongest critics of _____________, the privatization of public space and loss of “character
Define all vocabulary.
Answer the following questions.
Chapter 08: Political Geography
1. The promotion of the acquisition of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets during Europe’s rebirth was called
2. What ultimately proved to be the undoing of monarchical absolutism and its system of patronage during Europe’s rebirth?
3. Which is not characteristic of unitary state governments?
4. Nigeria is a state with a federal system of government. This fact is reflected in the adoption of _________ law in the states of the Muslim North.
5. The movement of power from the central government regional governments is referred to as
6. Which country has experienced violent devolution?
7. In 1997 Scotland took a major devolutionary step with the establishment of
8. In Italy, the Northern League’s desire for independence was based on the economic difference between the northern Po region and the southern Mezzogiorno. These differences are attributed to
9. Distance, remoteness and marginal location enhance the potential for devolution. This form of devolution is referred to as
10. The rise of the modern state idea, where territory defined society rather than society defining territory, swept through Europe in the
11. When not all people within a state identify with the dominant sense of nationality, movements for separation of nation and territory may arise. For example the ______in ___________.
12. Yugoslavia was a prime example of a
13. Which is an example of a stateless-nation?
14. The European state idea spread throughout the world through
15. One of the most powerful impacts of colonialism was the construction of global order characterized by great differences in
16. The highly uneven distribution of economic and political power that developed from colonialism was due to the concentration of wealth brought to
17. Wallerstein’s views expressed in world systems theory hold that the global integrating force has been
18. The emergence of a global capitalistic economy began to develop about
19. __________ is an example of a core country which was never a classical colonial power.
20. The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentially drawn
21. The process of adjustment of the number of representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives to reflect shifts in population patterns is known as
22. A series of concrete pillars _________ the northern boundary of Kuwait with Iraq.
23. A boundary between countries is a
24. The present number of countries and territories in the world is around
25. In The Territorial Imperative, Robert Ardery argued that humans are concerned with
26. Robert Sack’s view of human territorial behavior implies an expression of control over space and time. This control is closely related to the concept of
27. The Peace of Westphalia is the seminal moment in the emergence of the European state. This marked the end of
28. The boundary between the United States and Canada west of the Great Lakes is an example of a(n)
29. Which is an example of an allocational boundary dispute?
30. Geometric boundaries, totally unrelated to any aspects of the cultural or physical landscape, were made considerable use of by the colonial powers in
31. The first political geographer who studied the state in detail was Friedrich Ratzel who postulated that the state resembles a biological organism. His organic theory identified ______________ as a state’s essential life
32. Ratzel’s organic theory was converted into a subfield of political geography called geopolitics which was subsequently translated into practical national policies by some of his students. What country used geopolitics as a philosophy of expansion?
33. One move by the old League of Nations that would have a critical impact in the second half of the twentieth century involved
34. Participation in the United Nations serves the useful purpose of committing states to
35. The United Nations is not a world government, but in recent years individual states have asked the United Nations to do a number of different things, the most expensive of which is
36. The first major experiment in regional supranationalism was undertaken in Europe before World War II and involved the three countries
37. The Marshall Plan was a post-WW II endeavor by the United States to economically revive
38. Sir Halford Mackinder developed what would become known as the heartland theory which suggested that interior Eurasia contained a critical “pivot area
Define ALL Vocabulary for Ch 7.
Complete the following questions as your Winter Break Assignment.
1. Under Chinese communist rule (1949-present), Confucianism has
2. The Jews of Central Europe are known as
3. In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the government in 1991 proclaimed that a condition for a judge to be appointed to the country’s Islamic courts would be to wear
4. The belief that inanimate objects (e.g. trees, mountains, boulders) contain spirits is
5. Zoroastrianism is similar to Islam and Christianity in that it is
6. Which of the following is not generally a characteristic of an ethnic religion?
7. The faith that is most widely dispersed over the world is
8. The Hindu religion is one of the oldest of the great religions and may have begun ______ years ago.
9. Hinduism arose in the _____________ River valley.
10. One of the unique characteristics of Hinduism is that it
11. The fundamental doctrine of the Hindu faith is
12. Sikhism is a small compromise religion that arose from the confrontation between Hinduism
13. The Indonesian island of Bali became a refuge for Hindu holy men, nobles and intellectuals during the sixteenth century because
14. The former Soviet Union adopted _______________ as its official religious policy.
15. Religion persists in regions of the former Soviet Union with Azerbaijan seeing the continuation today of
16. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem marks the site of Christ’s
17. Jerusalem is a sacred place for
18. Ethnic strife in former Soviet regions reflects the legacy of the Soviet policy of
19. Persuasion will not lead people to change the language they speak, but it can induce them to
20. The Hajj, one of the “pillars of Islam,
Complete Chapter 6 Summary
Instructions: Write one statement for each paragraph in Chapter six. This will count as a homework assignment. Due on the day stated.
Vocabulary and questions for Chapter 6 will be checked during the next class. No excuses.
Define the vocabulary at the end of chapter 6 and answer the following questions.
Chapter: Chapter06: Language
1. Hawaii and Louisiana are examples with
2. Convergence processes yielding a synthesis of several languages produce a pidgin language. When this language becomes the first language of a population it is referred to as a
3. Official languages such as Spanish and Quechuan in Peru or English and Pilipino in the Philippines reflect
4. Monolingual countries, in which only one language is spoken, are few in number. Which of the following is not one of these countries?
5. Countries in which more than one language are in use are called
6. Which is not true of Quebec?
7. In technically advanced societies there is likely to be
8. Standard Italian is the version of the language spoken in
9. Dialects are most often marked by actual differences in
10. A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs is called a/an
11. Which of the following pairs of languages are not mutually intelligible?
12. There are ___ principal language families of the world.
13. The most widely used Indo-European language today is
14. The language most widely used as a second language by hundreds of millions of people in India, Africa and elsewhere is
15. The predominant languages spoken on Madagascar are not of an African language family, but belong to
16. Latin octo (eight) became Italian otto, Spanish ocho, and French huit. This is an example of ____________ over time in a language family.
17. Two Russian scholars have established the core of what they believe is a pre-Proto-Indo-European language named
18. Subsequent migrations and empire building caused the decline and marginalization of this subfamily which had brought Indo-European languages to Europe 3,000 years ago.
19. Brittany in western France shows the persistence of Breton in the _____ subfamily.
20. The language tree diagram of language divergence has some branches with dead ends. These represent
21. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Leningrad was renamed
22. The greatest concentration of streets memorializing Martin Luther King are found in:
23. The naming of sports stadiums and other facilities for corporations (e.g. Petco Park FedEx Field, Coors Field) is an example of
24. When African colonies became independent countries, one of the first acts of many of the new governments was to
25. The Proto-Indo-European language homeland lies somewhere north of the
26. The two theories of the Proto-Indo-European language dispersal are the conquest theory and
27. The Indo-European language family prevails on the map of Europe. Which country listed below has a language which is not in the Indo-European family?
28. Bantu migrations marginalized this once widespread African language family which now is found only in dry regions of southwestern Africa.
29. The linguistic map of Nigeria reflects extreme fragmentation with nearly ____ languages spoken.
30. Nigeria chose __________ as its official language upon independence.
31. Which development helped with the rise of national languages beginning in the fourteenth century?
32. A language that is the product of a process of convergence which allows speakers of two or more languages to communicate is
33. In an attempt to deal with linguistic as well as cultural diversity, many former African colonies have taken as their official language
34. The systematic study of the origin and meaning of place names is called
35. Clusters of French toponyms in Louisiana, Dutch toponyms in Michigan and Welsh toponyms in Pennsylvania reflect
36. Belgium is a ___________ speaking country.
37. Which of the following European countries has a rather sharp division between Flemish speakers in the north and Walloon speakers in the south?
38. The French government has _________ to protect French language and culture.
39. The crucial element in language is
40. Leopoldville, Congo becomes Kinshasa and Salisbury, Zimbabwe becomes Harare. These are examples of
41. Linguistic extinction occurs when all the speakers of a language either die or choose to speak another language.
42. Euskera, the Basque language, is not related to any other language in Europe.
43. Japan is an example of a monolingual state.
44. The predominantly French-speaking capital city of Belgium (Brussels) is located in the Flemish-speaking northern area of the country.
45. American, Canadian, and Russian governments have all worked to insure the preservation of minority native languages within their borders.
46. Lasker, North Carolina, named for Alaska, is an example of a toponym based upon a mistake.
47. The 1997 revolution in Zaire resulted in the change of the name of the country to Democratic Republic of Congo. This is an example of a post-colonial toponym.
48. Mandarin, the language in and around the Chinese capital Beijing, was chosen as the standardized form of Chinese for the whole country.
49. Even if the written form of a statement adheres to a standard language, the accent of a person who reads it will reveal their regional home.
50. The criteria of mutual intelligibility as determinative of the difference between a dialect and a language is accepted by most linguists.
1. Indo-European languages belong to the largest language family in the world. How and where do linguists believe this family originated and how has it evolved? What linguistic techniques and theories have been used to try to arrive at an answer to this question?
2. Consider the map of European languages and explain the existence and distribution of Celtic and Uralic (Hungarian, Finnish) languages.
3. What is deep reconstruction? What is Nostratic and of which languages is it assumed to be the ancestor?
4. Distinguish between dialect, pidgin language, creole language and a true discrete language. Why is it often difficult to distinguish one from another?
5. Consider some of the place-names (toponyms) in your state or locality. Use the ten types of place-names devised by Prof. George Stewart to classify some of your local place-names. Do his categories overlap in some cases?