Answer the questions and define the vocabulary.
Chapter14: Globalization and the Geography of Networks
1. Globalization is the inevitable outcome of modern spatial processes.
2. The World Bank, IMF and WTO are seen as carrying out the Washington Consensus.
3. According to Castells, networks lead to increased regional inequities.
4. Miami is more linked to Latin America than Los Angeles.
5. Study of participatory development showed higher levels of success among the poorest farmers in rural India because they had the most to gain.
6. Central to globalization is
7. According to Manuel Castells, a set of interconnected nodes is a(n)
8. Annual meetings of the World Social Forum—a network of socialist organizations—takes place in
9. The annual meeting of the World Economic Forum—representing large corporations and political leaders of rich countries—takes place in
10. Which of the following cities established a “local currency” in an effort to avoid globalized currencies?
11. The study of global cities showed that _____ is the most globally linked city in the world.
12. Corbridge and Kumar’s study of participatory development in India found that its greatest success was among
13. Media corporations which integrate ownership in a variety of points along the production and consumption chain are examples of
14. Media’s power as information gatekeepers has been undercut by
1. Some cultures exhibit a strong resistance to the influences of globalization, even though the effort may not be successful. What are some of the reasons why this is so? Think of reasons why your own culture might resist outside influence.
2. Define “horizontal integration.” Try to find out how many retail chain outlets in your local mall are owned by the same parent corporation.
3. How does globalization and the development of networks integrate some places and marginalize others? Give examples of both outcomes.
4. Where do you get your news? Do you depend upon media networks or do you seek alternative sources? How has the rise of the Internet influenced centralized media?
Define the vocabulary and answer the questions.
Chapter13: Human Environment
1. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene was the ________ Glaciation.
2. The greatest threat to human existence to come from any source was a volcanic eruption occurring about 73,500 years ago. The volcano was called
3. The geologic epoch, characterized by global warming, in which we are now living is the
4. The Little Ice Age began to affect Europe in which century?
5. The climatic record documenting the beginning of the Little Ice Age was partially pieced together by using farmer’s diaries. Those of _________ were most useful.
6. Growing understanding of the affects of the Little Ice Age leads to the suggestion that the chief cause of the rapid collapse of the Jamestown colony may well have been
7. A tsunamis wave result from
8. Depletion of the ozone layer is caused by the release of __________ into the atmosphere.
9. Climatologist-geographer Alfred Wegener used his spatial view of the world to develop the theory of
10. The latest Pangaea break up began _______ years ago.
11. The boundaries of rocky crustal plates (theory of plate tectonics) are associated with
12. Over the past century the pace of human environmental change has
13. The world distribution of precipitation is concentrated in
14. The distribution of precipitation over the areas of the Earth, with concentrations in some areas and paucity in others, is sustained through a process called the
15. Fifty times as much water is stored in _______________ in the United States as falls as precipitation each year.
16. One of the great ecological disasters of the twentieth century occurred in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan and involves the
17. Increasingly, people have come to depend on water sources
18. The Sea of Galilee forms a large freshwater reservoir in the Jordan Valley and is the source of most of the water for which of the following countries?
19. What percentage of the Earth’s surface is covered by water?
20. Plant life and photosynthesis began about 1.5 billion years ago and increased the ___________ level in the atmosphere.
21. The Earth’s most recent experience with mass volcanism was between _________ million years ago.
22. The Little Ice Age put an end to a period of flourishing ________________________ in Ming Dynasty China.
23. The eruption of the Tambora volcano on the island of Sumatra resulted in what has been called the “year without a summer” in Europe and America. That year was
24. Biologists estimate that there may be as many as ____ million types
25. Human destructiveness of the environment manifested itself early when
26. The amount of forest cutting that has gone on wherever humans locate has been very extensive. In the United States, for example, forests consists mainly of _______ trees.
27. The United States is the most prolific producer of solid waste. Studies estimate that the U.S. produces about ____ pounds of solid waste per person per day.
28. Of the U.S. landfills for the disposal of low level radioactive waste, ___ percent are now open.
29. Human habitation of the Pacific Islands is estimated to have led to the extinction of _______ bird species.
30. Globally, the consumption of resources is tied to _______________ more than any other factor.
31. Kuwait is developing ________ as a resource to offset the inevitable decline in oil production.
32. The Polynesians reduced the forests of their islands to brush, and by the time of the arrival of the Europeans, had exterminated more than 80 percent of the regional birds due to their penchant for
33. Which of the following is not one of the key “greenhouse” gasses?
34. Changes in climate involve changes in the ________cycle, which in turn affects patterns of precipitation.
35. To some extent acid rain has always been present in certain humid environments, but during the last century the spread of _____________ has greatly increased the destructive capabilities of natural acid rain.
36. The geography of acid rain occurrence is most closely associated with patterns of industrial concentration and
37. The highest densities of coal and oil burning, which causes acid rain, are associated with large concentrations of heavy manufacturing, such as those in
38. Forests affect the atmosphere through their role in (the)
39. In the early 1980s, the FAO of the United Nations undertook a study of the rate of depletion of tropical rain forests and determined that ______ percent had already been affected by cutting.
40. The Global Environmental Facility funds projects related to four issues. Which of the following is not one of these?
41. In the United States, landfill capacity has been reached or soon will be reached in about 12 states.
42. Mortality risk from natural disaster is greatest in developed countries.
43. Modes of transportation represent some of the most important technological advances, with profound environmental impact, in human history.
44. Wind energy parks in Spain created 695 million euro in income in 2002.
45. When it comes to environmental change, population numbers alone do not have the same meaning in all places.
46. In the world of the early 2000s, there are many international policy-making bodies with significant authority over multinational environmental spaces.
47. International concern over the loss of global species led to calls for a global convention (agreement) as early as
48. Chlorofluorocarbon gasses are the main culprits in ozone depletion. These gasses have only been in use since the
49. The Earth’s environment has been changed little throughout the past 15,000 years.
50. Pangaea’s break-up 180 million years ago, was accompanied by violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions which impacted global climate and biodiversity.
51. Global warming began about 18,000 years ago and is a characteristic of the Holocene.
52. Sixty percent of Israel’s water supply comes from the occupied territories of the Golan Heights and West Bank.
53. Soil erosion is little affected by population growth as there is a limit to the amount of cultivation of an acre of land.
54. The U.S., European Union and Japan export solid waste to countries in Africa, South and Middle America, and East Asia.
1. How has the climate of the Earth changed in the past 15,000 years? Describe periods of alternate warming and cooling and some of the associated environmental effects. What do some theories hold has been the impact of the Industrial Revolution global climate patterns?
2. One of the effects of global warming and environmental change is a shift in precipitation patterns and amounts; most of the latter would probably be a reduction in annual totals. Based on your knowledge of your home area or regions, what do you think would be the result of such a shift on life in your home region?
3. List some of the causes of deforestation. Discuss the implications of this destruction. What could humanity lose when the rain forests are gone?
4. What have trends in global biodiversity been in the past few centuries? What are some of the causes of loss of biodiversity and what are some implications?
5. Discuss some of the reasons that many environmental problems are now considered global rather simply regional or local in nature. Give several examples.
Define Vocabulary and answer the questions.
Chapter12: Industry and Services
1. England not only held a monopoly over products that were in world demand at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, but also a monopoly on
2. In Britain, the proximity of what three things gave an unsurpassed advantage to the development of early industry?
3. Industry diffusing to Western Europe involved, as in Britain, the locational criteria: coalfields, water communication, and ____________.
4. The Ruhr industrial area is connected to its port by
5. Some industrial regions emerge because of their raw materials combinations. Which of the following is not an example of such a region?
6. The relocation of industry to cities like Paris and London was facilitated by
7. Nike, headquartered in Oregon, employs 20,000 people in that state. What percentage are employed in shoe manufacture/assembly?
8. In 1925, one area of Boston had sales offices for over _____ shoe factories.
9. In the early eighteenth century, British textiles were manufactured
10. Who actually laid the groundwork for the colonial expansion of Europe?
11. The first power source of the Industrial Revolution was
12. Burning coal in a near vacuum produced a much hotter burning, pure carbon fuel called
13. The first railroad in England was opened in
14. Which of the four classifications of industry must locate where the resources are found?
15. The increase in time and cost with distance is referred to as
16. When Alfred Weber published his book Theory of the Location of Industries (1909), what did he select as the critical determinant of regional industrial location?
17. If a substantial number of enterprises all develop in, or move to, the same area the factor is called
18. Hotelling’s location analysis emphasized the role of
19. Industrialization occurred along an axis from Northern France through North-Central Germany to Czech Republic and South Poland. This axis correlates with________ as a locational factor.
20. Europe’s greatest industrial complex is
21. In which major world manufacturing country does industry not lie near sources of raw material?
22. Japan became the world’s second largest economy with ½ of the population of the United States and _____ of the land area.
23. Japan’s dominant industrial region is
24. The Kansai district is found along _____________, Japan’s major waterway.
25. Mass production of standardized goods using assembly line techniques is referred to as:
26. Fast, flexible production of small lots with outsourcing around the world is referred to as:
27. Saxony (Leipzig and Dresden) emphasize this type of manufacturing:
28. Manufacturing in North America began in _____ as early as late colonial times.
29. Raw materials play an important role in industrial location. In the northeastern United States, what is the orientation of this industry?
30. New York City, like other large urban centers with great ports, is called a break of bulk location because
31. Although no match for Canada’s Ontario industrial district, the one great advantage of the Montreal area is
32. Canada’s industrial southern Ontario links two parts of the U.S. Manufacturing Belt: Buffalo and
33. This area is one of Russia’s oldest manufacturing centers.
34. After World War I, this region produced about 90 percent of the coal needed to help the then Soviet Union industrialize.
35. Russia’s “Detroit” southeast of Moscow:
36. The type of manufacturing that is more likely to be located in peripheral countries is
37. By 1990, the only American company that was making color television sets was
38. Television research and design takes place in the
39. During the 1970s, U.S. television manufacturers began to move productions “offshore” to places such as special zones on the Mexican border called
40. At the beginning of World War I, the United States was far behind Europe in developing an industrial base.
41. New York’s port is small, used for passengers and does not serve as break-of-bulk location.
42. St. Petersburg is one of Russia’s oldest manufacturing centers.
43. The northeast industrial region of China (Shenyang) is today growing faster than other industrial regions in China.
44. Japan has developed its industrial economy due to its abundant supplies of coal and iron ore.
45. The Seto Inland Sea is an important route-way and focal point of Japan’s industry.
46. Global division of labor is a feature of post-Fordist stage of industrialization.
47. Over 300 regional trade organizations are in existence today.
48. Most of China’s recent industrial growth feeds the growing domestic market.
49. The shift from coal to oil explains the recent industrialization of the Middle East.
50. China is a major recipient of industrial work outsourced from other countries.
51. Technopoles locate near major universities and centers of research and development.
52. Current amounts of goods and resources moving in the global system would be impossible without the invention of
53. Over 50% of the goods entering Europe come through two ports in
54. Which country is almost completely dependent upon imported oil/natural gas?
55. U.S. oil reserves are estimated to be ____% of the world’s total.
56. Between 1940 and the early 1960s, China’s industrial growth was aided by
57. China’s “Pittsburgh” is
58. The second largest industrial district in China developed around _______, China’s largest city.
59. Service industries are commonly referred to as _____ industries.
60. People working in the ___________ sector of economic activity tend to have high levels of specialized knowledge or technical skills.
61. The most important locational factor for the service sector is
62. Technopoles, a collection of high-technology industries, can be found in a number of countries. Which of the following is not a region containing one of these countries?
63. High-technology corridors have sprung up in the global economic core. The resulting collection of high-tech industries has been called a tehcnopole with the best known being California’s “Silicon Valley.” A similar concentration has appeared around the city of ______________ in the eastern United States.
64. Technopoles tend to locate near
65. Industry actually developed long before the Industrial Revolution.
66. Weber’s industrial location theory considered labor to be the most important cost.
67. Since 1960, the Ruhr has entered a stage of rapid deindustrialization.
1. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? What were the conditions which supported its development? To what areas of Europe did the revolution spread and why?
2. Describe the American Manufacturing Belt. When and how did this region develop? What impact has post-Fordism and deindustrialization had on this region?
3. What is outsourcing? What is offshore production? Choose an industry (televisions, Nike shoes, etc.) and discuss the global division of labor.
4. Does shifting to a post-industrial society necessarily lead to economic decline in a country? What changes in economy and what effects does the shift have on the structure of the labor force and on regional economies based on primary, secondary, and tertiary activities?
5. Discuss the rise of technopoles in the United States? What do they produce? What locational features stimulate their development? What role do they play in the global economy?
6. Specific economic activities have long been concentrated in particular places. Two new economic concentrations are special manufacturing export zones and high technology corridors. What exactly are these two new concentrations? In what kind of areas do they develop? Why? How are they connected?
7. The tertiary sector of economic activity is often broken down into three categories. Identify the categories. How is this tied to deindustrialization? What was the relation between the rise of these tertiary activities and the explosion of high-technology usages in the past couple of decades?
Define all vocabulary and print and answer the following review questions.
1. Demand for organic foods is greatest in
2. Which is not an example of a primary economic activity?
3. Guatemala’s agricultural sector produces 22.7% of the country’s GDP and employs _____% of the labor force.
4. The ratio of percent of labor force to percent of GDP in the agricultural sector of Canada (3% of labor force : 2.3% of GDP) indicates that Canada’s agricultural sector is ______________ intensive.
5. Cattle were domesticated in and came to be an important cultural feature of
6. Of the 148 species of large herbivore (over 100 lbs.) _______ have been domesticated and all of these were domesticated over 4,500 years ago.
7. Which of the following is not an example of a hunting and gathering group that still existed in the early 2000s?
8. By 1992, the most widely grown crop variety on Earth was a product of the Green Revolution called IR36, which was a variety of
9. In the 1940s, American philanthropists funded research on this crop. By 1960, Mexico no longer depended on imports as production had risen dramatically. The crop is:
10. Often crops are associated with regions other than the one in which they were developed. For example, the “Irish” or “Idaho” potato originated in the Andean Highlands. Corn of the American “Corn Belt” originated in
11. In areas of shifting cultivation the population
12. Colonial powers would make subsistence farmers
13. Before the intervention of Europeans, the societies practicing subsistence framing were quite equal because
14. Twenty-five percent of world sugar production takes place outside of the tropical plantation region (U.S.A. Western Europe, Russia) and is produced from
15. Much of the cotton purchased by the United Kingdom, Western Europe, and Japan is grown in
16. Rubber trees were first tapped in
17. The Second Agricultural Revolution can generally be traced to Europe within what time frame?
18. Which commodity would be found closest to the market town in von Thunen’s model?
19. The average size of a family farm in China is ________ acres.
20. The rectangular land division scheme in the United States adopted after the American Revolution is quite unique. Its correct name is:
21. The basic unit of the township-and-range system, the section, has an area of
22. The most prevalent rural residential pattern in the world’s agricultural areas is
23. A form of tropical subsistence agriculture in which fields are rotated after short periods of crop production is
24. Milpa agriculture involves the _________ method of clearing fields.
25. About how many people practice shifting cultivation in the world today?
26. Bio-genetically engineering now allows the growing of new strains in more arid regions of the Plains States to meet the demand of the ___________ industry.
27. Hunter-gatherers living in the vicinity of the Pacific Ocean specialized in
28. Geographer Lee Liu studying the spatial patterns of agriculture in parts of China, found soils in intensively used fields near villages were
29. According to Carl Sauer, the earliest plant domestication was
30. Most scholars believe that seed cultivation (First Agricultural Revolution) occurred in
31. According to Spencer and Thomas, each agricultural hearth was associated with a local grouping of plants. For example, taro. yams, and bananas are associated with the _______________ hearth.
32. In von Thunen’s model there was a concentric circle of forest around the city because
33. Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the Zagros Mountain region of
34. Organic food in the United States now constitutes _____ percent of the total food production.
35. Organic food is found in _____ areas.
36. The form of villages still existing in many rural landscapes that are reminders of a of a turbulent past is
37. The Spanish invaders of Middle America, centuries ago, laid out villages and towns in what form?
38. In villages everywhere, social stratification is reflected by
39. The functional differentiation of farm villages world-wide are to
40. Rice cultivation in Southeast Asia is largely a ________________ activity.
41. The form of agriculture that refers to a particular climate is
42. Which of the following areas does not have a Mediterranean-type climate?
43. In recent years, many wooded areas in ___________ have been deforested to provide beef for hamburgers for fast-food chains in the United States.
44. Poorer countries, producing such cash crops as sugar,
45. The colonial powers transplanted rubber trees to _________ from Brazil.
46. Coffee was domesticated in Ethiopia. Today, 70% of production is in
47. Fair trade coffee buyers certify that ____ % of the retail price of their coffee goes to the coffee growers.
48. Which of the following agricultural activities is widespread in the northeastern U.S. and northwestern Europe?
49. Which of the following are fairly small areas of wheat production still have major export trade?
50. The world’s leading exporter of rice is
51. Animals were domesticated in different regions of the world at different times.
52. Farmers of the Nile Valley practice shifting cultivation.
53. Shifting cultivation involves shifting crops (crop rotation) in small permanent fields.
54. Destruction of subsistence farming communities can cause a breakdown in the culture of the people.
55. Hunters and gatherers cannot live in permanent settlements.
56. Because of the Green Revolution, today most famine results from political instability rather than failure of crop production.
57. The expansion of crop production for export in Latin America has increasingly marginalized subsistence farmers.
58. Even after the end of colonialism, many plantations in the world are still owned by Europeans or Americans.
59. Very few of Southeast Asia’s rice farmers are subsistence farmers.
60. Wine production is a feature characteristic of Mediterranean agriculture around the world.
61. Agriculture started in one location and then diffused all over the world.
62. IR8 rice, a genetic cross of Chinese and Indonesian strains, was an early result of the Third Agricultural Revolution.
63. The U.S. township-and-range land division scheme was devised in the 1950s.
64. As societies become more complex, functional differences are seen in buildings.
65. Cattle ranching in North and South America shows a Thunian pattern lying in the peripheral areas with consumption in the cities.
1. Describe the locations of the centers of the First Agricultural Revolution. Give examples of the crops and animals which were domesticated in various places. What demographic and social changes resulted from this revolution in food production?
2. What significant changes were seen during the Second Agricultural Revolution? How were these interrelated with and how did they aid the Industrial Revolution?
3. Describe the township-and-range system and the American rural landscape it has given rise to (fields, houses, buildings etc.). Where in the American landscape would one not find this system of land survey?
4. Why do some poorer countries not discard the old colonial patterns of plantations and cash cropping?
5. Contrast the production of wheat and rice in the world. Where are they grown and where are they consumed? What are the differences in production methods and export patterns?
6. Describe plantation agriculture in terms of distribution, commodities, production, and consumption.
7. How has the rise of agribusiness changed the rural landscape and environment?
Define all vocabulary.
Answer and print the following questions.
1. Which does not make up a portion of Colombia’s GNP?
2. Which Asian nation listed below has a per capita GNP above the world average?
3. A large component of survival in countries with low per capita GNP is
4. High levels of development can be determined by measurement of access to railways, roads, airline connections, telephones, radio and television, etc. These are collectively referred to as
5. Dependency ratio measures:
6. Which is not among the five stages of Rostow’s development model?
7. Rostow’s model, developed in the early 1960s, was based upon the experience of
8. Even if the Gross National Product (GNP) index is used to measure the well-being of a country, it will fail to show
9. Quarry workers, quarry owners, stone cutters, exporters, designers and architects, builders, tile and stone distributors, etc. represent an example of the links connecting producers and consumers in a world market. This is an example of
10. ________________ processes in the commodity chain involve technology, education, research and development, and high wages.
11. Which of the following is not associated with core production processes?
12. Microcredit programs have been successful in many places with the exception of
13. Gross national product (GNP) measures the value of officially recorded goods and services produced within a country.
14. In Africa and other developing regions the output in the subsistence agricultural sector is not included in GNP calculations.
15. The use of energy efficient process and devices may actually lower GNP.
16. A high percentage of laborers engaged in the production of food staples indicates a low, overall level of development.
17. Core-periphery theory can operate at a number of scales. For example, Los Angeles can be described as the core of Southern California.
18. The word “development” implies
19. Modern ideas of development are related to
20. Gross national product (GNP) measures the total value of goods and services produced by a country’s corporations and individuals. It is standardized by
21. Gross domestic product measures only
22. Which of the following has the highest per capita GNP?
23. The principal sturcturalist alternative to Rostow’s model of economic development is known as
24. The continuation of economic dependence even after political independence is referred to as
25. Theories which hold that economic disparities are built into the global economic system are referred to as
26. El Salvador abandoned its currency, the Colon, in favor of the U.S. dollar. This process is referred to as
27. Mexico has established export processing zones with special tax, trade and regulatory arrangements for foreign firms. This phenomena is referred to as
28. Subsistence forms of agriculture in peripheral areas produce little in the way of
29. Desertification in Africa is a particular problem as ____ of the continent is arid or semiarid.
30. In peripheral countries it is not unusual for hotels in tourist areas to be owned by
31. Many tourist areas in peripheral regions are beach resorts. In 2004 Thailand’s beach resort areas were ravaged by
32. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the United States with 80% unemployment and per capita income around $6,000 illustrates __________________________ within a core area country.
33. Wallerstein’s three-tier regionalization of the world includes all of the following except
34. Countries in which tier of the world economy (region) have high birth and death rates and low life expectancy at birth?
35. Young girls trafficked from the periphery to wealthier regions most often work as
36. Which organization is headed by a U.S. citizen, is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and is charged with combating poverty in peripheral countries?
37. Argentina’s severe economic crisis in 2001 was triggered by economic decisions made
38. Economic development in some African states (e.g. Malawi and Zimbabwe) is hampered by
39. Most victims of malaria are
40. Core area agriculture is characterized by
41. Establishment of government quotas on imports (e.g. cotton shirts or steel) to the U.S. has led to
42. Governments in both core and periphery often create wealth by focusing well paid government jobs
43. A look at the maps of Nigeria, Pakistan and Brazil would show that when governments established new post-colonial capitals, they moved away from
44. Port Gentile, Gabon was built by
45. Twenty thousand nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh constitute what can be called
46. One compensation of being in a peripheral region of the world economy is that goods and services are low cost, thus making education free of cost in most of the region.
47. Recent developments in China’s coastal provinces has created greater regional economic disparities with interior regions.
48. Port Gentile is an example of an island of development.
49. Governments have least control over wealth generating processes at the point in the commodity chain where goods enter the country.
50. The world economic system works to the disadvantage of the periphery countries.
1. Describe the regional inequality in the peripheral regions. Why is this a growing problem?
2. Discuss Rostow’s stages of modernization model and give examples of countries you believe exemplify each stage.
3. What is the major difference between Rostow’s and Wallerstein’s models of development? Compare and contrast the idea of core processes and peripheral processes with Rostow’s notion of progressive stages of economic advancement.
4. Define Gross National Product. Discuss the world map of per capita GNP and apply Wallerstein’s three-tier regionalization (core, semi-periphery, periphery) to divide the world into three development regions. Give examples of countries in each region.
5. Discuss several types of barriers to development. What can governments do to remove those barriers?
6. There are extremes of development within all countries. Describe places at each end of the spectrum within a developed county and compare the description with places of extreme wealth and poverty within a peripheral country. In what ways are they similar and in what ways do they differ?
Define all vocabulary and answer the following questions.
Chapter09: Urban Geography
1. Which is not related to urbanization processes of the second urban revolution?
2. In a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city, town or village is inversely proportional to its rank in the system (i.e. if the largest city is 4 million the second will be 2 million or 1/2 , the third will be 1/3 and so on). This is known as
3. A hinterland reveals the _________ of each settlement.
4. Paris and Mexico City are many times larger than the second-ranked city in their respective countries. Their disproportionate size illustrates
5. The response of the urban system of the American South and Southwest to the influx of migrants over the past three decades conforms with predictions of central place theory. This is called the ________ phenomenon.
6. In Burgess’ concentric zone model, the zone of transition became
7. Peter Muller’s analysis of suburbanization indicated that suburbs were
8. Where did the first urban development originate?
9. Which is not among the components which enabled the formation of the first cities?
10. Ancient towns and cities owed much of their success and growth to certain site advantages. Which of the following was not one of these advantages?
11. What structures dominated the urban landscape of the ancient Mesopotamian cities?
12. In which of the following regions did urbanization develop first?
13. Which feature typical of ancient urbanization was not present in the Nile River Valley hearth?
14. Ancient cities were not large by modern standards. The cities of Mesopotamian and the Nile Valley probably had populations of
15. Urban places in the ancient world were
16. Athens may have been the largest city in the world at the time of its existence, with a population estimated at
17. The Parthenon of Athens is a structure typical of ancient Greek cities. It is a(n)
18. Rome created a huge urban system. The integration of the Roman Empire was greatly facilitated by a
19. The multiple nuclei model of urban structure developed by Harris and Ullman arose from the idea that _______ was losing its dominant position in the metropolitan city.
20. A trade area is the area of economic reach of a particular city, town or village and reflects economic and spatial interaction between the settlement and its surrounding area.
21. Burgess’ concentric zone model emphasized homogenous pie shaped wedges of land use extending from the CBD to the cities edge.
22. Latin American cities feature the deterioration of inner city neighborhoods (slums) similar to their North American counterparts.
23. Subsaharan Africa is both the least urbanized and the slowest urbanizing realm in the world.
24. Southeast Asian cities are exceptional in that they have significantly large middle-class residential areas.
25. Gated communities do not exist in communist countries ruled by egalitarian values (e.g. China).
26. Urban sprawl is closely associated with rapid urban population growth.
27. The core of a city is called the
28. What term came into use to describe the spatial components of the metropolis of the late twentieth century?
29. After 1970, new suburban downtowns (edge cities) were spawned in the outer city of Los Angeles, with their leading concentrations
30. Mexico City and Sao Paolo are examples of
31. In Latin America, which of the following does not accurately describe the typical CBD?
32. In the Latin American city, where are the homes of the most impoverished and unskilled residents?
33. The layout of a city, the physical form and structure, is referred to as
34. Which of the following countries is least urbanized?
35. Human communities have existed for 100,00 years, but some did not start to grow into larger places until about _______ years ago.
36. The very early developing agricultural societies were
37. Expanding on the Greek city’s theater, the Romans built the world’s first
38. The relative location of a city refers to its
39. The manufacturing city (post Industrial Revolution) first emerged in
40. A structural element of many Latin American cities, the disamenity sector, is illustrated by the
41. Which of the following is both the least urbanized and the most rapidly urbanizing realm of the world?
42. Most African central cities actually have how many CBD’s?
43. The focal point of the Southeast Asian city is the
44. In Southeast Asian cities the alien commercial zone is dominated by
45. Comparing Luanda, Angola to a suburb of Tokyo one is struck by the fact that the urban morphology reflects the fact that Angola lacks a __________ class.
46. The huge influx of population from rural to urban areas in peripheral or semi-peripheral areas find housing in
47. If cities in the poorer parts of the world share a common characteristic, it may result from
48. Segregation in the United States was reinforced by the financial practice known as
49. In core area cities the practice of buying up and rehabilitating deteriorating housing which resulted in the raising of housing values and a social change in neighborhoods is called
50. The core area suburbs are experiencing a process of the tearing down of existing suburban homes and the building of very large, standardized looking homes known as
51. The decline in density and the spread of cities associated with the building of freeways in the second half of the twentieth century has been pejoratively referred to as
52. Marxist geographer David Harvey is one of the strongest critics of _____________, the privatization of public space and loss of “character” of neighborhoods.
53. Gated communities have __________ as their chief objective.
54. Ethnic neighborhoods in European cities reflect migrants from
55. The growth of ethnic neighborhoods in _________ is less than in other European countries.
56. Housing in the slum area, Kiberia in Nairobi, Kenya is occupied by Luo and Luhya peoples of western and northwester Kenya and is owned by
57. New York’s Times Square and Berlin’s Potzdammer Platz are examples of giant media reshaping cities into
58. Urbanization occurred in all urban hearths at about the same time.
59. The Etruscans were the predecessors of the Romans.
60. Early cities were often theocratic centers with temples being a prominent urban feature.
61. Ancient Athens, for all its fame, was small by ancient standards with approximately 12,000 residents.
62. The second urban revolution is associated with the Industrial Revolution and the rise of industrial cities.
1. Discuss the nature of ancient cities. Where did they arise? What was their regional and social context and interactions? What were they like in terms of urban morphology and landscape?
2. What conditions were required for the occurrence of a second urban revolution? When and where did this revolution take place? In what ways did cities and societies change? (Refer to urban function and morphology and urban site and situation in your answer).
3. Discuss the central place theory of urban systems advanced by Christaller. Describe the following features of the theory: central place, trade area, and hexagonal hinterlands. What assumptions did Christaller make when formulating the theory? Give examples of areas where his theory seems to explain the distribution of cities.
4. Compare and contrast the concentric zone, sector and multiple nuclei models of urban structure.
5. Choose one of the following models of urban structure: African, Latin American, or Southeast Asian and compare it to the model of urban structure of a European city. Highlight both differences and similarities.
6. What role did European colonialism play in the diffusion of cities? In what way did this influence the rise of global urbanism and the global city?
7. Define urban sprawl and describe the landscape of sprawl typical to North American cities. How does new urbanism respond to urban sprawl? What criticism has been made of attempts to construct communities along new urbanist lines?
Define all vocabulary.
Answer the following questions.
Chapter 08: Political Geography
1. The promotion of the acquisition of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets during Europe’s rebirth was called
2. What ultimately proved to be the undoing of monarchical absolutism and its system of patronage during Europe’s rebirth?
3. Which is not characteristic of unitary state governments?
4. Nigeria is a state with a federal system of government. This fact is reflected in the adoption of _________ law in the states of the Muslim North.
5. The movement of power from the central government regional governments is referred to as
6. Which country has experienced violent devolution?
7. In 1997 Scotland took a major devolutionary step with the establishment of
8. In Italy, the Northern League’s desire for independence was based on the economic difference between the northern Po region and the southern Mezzogiorno. These differences are attributed to
9. Distance, remoteness and marginal location enhance the potential for devolution. This form of devolution is referred to as
10. The rise of the modern state idea, where territory defined society rather than society defining territory, swept through Europe in the
11. When not all people within a state identify with the dominant sense of nationality, movements for separation of nation and territory may arise. For example the ______in ___________.
12. Yugoslavia was a prime example of a
13. Which is an example of a stateless-nation?
14. The European state idea spread throughout the world through
15. One of the most powerful impacts of colonialism was the construction of global order characterized by great differences in
16. The highly uneven distribution of economic and political power that developed from colonialism was due to the concentration of wealth brought to
17. Wallerstein’s views expressed in world systems theory hold that the global integrating force has been
18. The emergence of a global capitalistic economy began to develop about
19. __________ is an example of a core country which was never a classical colonial power.
20. The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentially drawn
21. The process of adjustment of the number of representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives to reflect shifts in population patterns is known as
22. A series of concrete pillars _________ the northern boundary of Kuwait with Iraq.
23. A boundary between countries is a
24. The present number of countries and territories in the world is around
25. In The Territorial Imperative, Robert Ardery argued that humans are concerned with
26. Robert Sack’s view of human territorial behavior implies an expression of control over space and time. This control is closely related to the concept of
27. The Peace of Westphalia is the seminal moment in the emergence of the European state. This marked the end of
28. The boundary between the United States and Canada west of the Great Lakes is an example of a(n)
29. Which is an example of an allocational boundary dispute?
30. Geometric boundaries, totally unrelated to any aspects of the cultural or physical landscape, were made considerable use of by the colonial powers in
31. The first political geographer who studied the state in detail was Friedrich Ratzel who postulated that the state resembles a biological organism. His organic theory identified ______________ as a state’s essential life
32. Ratzel’s organic theory was converted into a subfield of political geography called geopolitics which was subsequently translated into practical national policies by some of his students. What country used geopolitics as a philosophy of expansion?
33. One move by the old League of Nations that would have a critical impact in the second half of the twentieth century involved
34. Participation in the United Nations serves the useful purpose of committing states to
35. The United Nations is not a world government, but in recent years individual states have asked the United Nations to do a number of different things, the most expensive of which is
36. The first major experiment in regional supranationalism was undertaken in Europe before World War II and involved the three countries
37. The Marshall Plan was a post-WW II endeavor by the United States to economically revive
38. Sir Halford Mackinder developed what would become known as the heartland theory which suggested that interior Eurasia contained a critical “pivot area” that would generate a state capable of challenging for world domination. The key to the area according to Mackinder was
39. At the global scale, political geographers study the spatial manifestations of political processes expressed in the organization of territories with permanent population, defined territory and a government. These spatial units are called
40. In 1943 Mackinder wrote about his concerns over the potential of Stalin’s control of the countries of Eastern Europe. His views led to the development of the United States’s containment policy and to the establishment of
41. Recent geopolitical theory emphasizes the “deconstruction” of spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of leading western politicians and analysis of the way their ideas are used to manipulate public opinion. This field of research is called
42. Following the disintegration of the former Soviet Union the only surviving superpower was
43. Technically supranationalism refers to efforts by ______ or more states to forge associations for common advantage and in pursuit of common goals.
44. The League of Nations was created in 1919 as the first international organization that would include all nations of the world. Its success was dealt a serious blow by the failure of what country to join?
45. What country do members of the European community worry will dominate the entire group?
46. As of 2005, which major European Union nation has not entered the Euro Monetary Zone?
47. The European Union’s future expansion into the Muslim realm by the inclusion of __________ is highly controversial and strongly opposed by Greece.
48. According to Alexander Murphy, attachment to region and to the European Union is greater than attachment to the state in
49. Listed among the challenges to the state in the twenty-first century are all the following except
50. Which of the following is either believed to have or to be actively developing nuclear weapons?
51. In Europe prior to the mid-1600s, sovereignty was expressed over people rather than over a territory.
52. Once a body of people is incorporated within a political boundary they are a nation.
53. Belgium is an example of a nation-state where nation and state coincide within boundaries.
54. According to Hartshorne, centrifugal forces work to build a nation-state.
55. As a federal state Nigeria vests judicial power in the various states. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Sharia law in Nigeria’s Muslim north.
56. The Rio Grande River is a geometric boundary separating the United States and Mexico.
57. Devolution is affecting many countries in the world today.
58. Gerrymandering refers to electoral redistricting in order to gain a political advantage.
59. Disputes over water (e.g. among Syria, Turkey, and Iraq over the Euphrates) are examples of allocational boundary disputes.
60. The League of Nations intervened to aid Ethiopia when attacked by Italy in the mid-1930s.
61. Mackinder’s heartland theory of geopolitics maintained that world domination would be exercised through sea power.
62. NAFTA is a North American supranational association for mutual economic benefit.
63. Critical geopolitics emphasizes the analysis of diplomatic and power relations between various state groupings.
64. Huntington’s thesis in The Clash of Civilization is similar to Wallerstein’s view that international relations are reducible to economic rather than cultural factors.
1. Discuss the European state model in terms of territory, sovereignty, homogeneity and control. Choose a state and discuss the formation and extension of control from the capital core to peripheral regions and the types of devolutionary forces within the state.
2. Discuss the boundaries of the coterminous United States in terms of boundary type and in terms of potential for various types of boundary disputes.
3. Discuss the factors needed to create a nation-state. Are there any perfect nation-states? What factors can threaten a nation-states stability?
4. Discuss core-periphery processes on a global scale. Give an example of countries or regions you believe to exemplify each of the three divisions of the world-economy (i.e., core, periphery, semi-periphery).
5. Discuss supranationalism in general terms. How has the European Union developed as a supranational entity? What do you think the future development of the European Union will be like?
6. Why is subSaharan Africa likely to face more serious problems creating cohesive independent states that would be politically stable and lack serious internal ethnic frictions?
Define ALL Vocabulary for Ch 7.
Complete the following questions as your Winter Break Assignment.
1. Under Chinese communist rule (1949-present), Confucianism has
2. The Jews of Central Europe are known as
3. In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the government in 1991 proclaimed that a condition for a judge to be appointed to the country’s Islamic courts would be to wear
4. The belief that inanimate objects (e.g. trees, mountains, boulders) contain spirits is
5. Zoroastrianism is similar to Islam and Christianity in that it is
6. Which of the following is not generally a characteristic of an ethnic religion?
7. The faith that is most widely dispersed over the world is
8. The Hindu religion is one of the oldest of the great religions and may have begun ______ years ago.
9. Hinduism arose in the _____________ River valley.
10. One of the unique characteristics of Hinduism is that it
11. The fundamental doctrine of the Hindu faith is
12. Sikhism is a small compromise religion that arose from the confrontation between Hinduism
13. The Indonesian island of Bali became a refuge for Hindu holy men, nobles and intellectuals during the sixteenth century because
14. The former Soviet Union adopted _______________ as its official religious policy.
15. Religion persists in regions of the former Soviet Union with Azerbaijan seeing the continuation today of
16. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem marks the site of Christ’s
17. Jerusalem is a sacred place for
18. Ethnic strife in former Soviet regions reflects the legacy of the Soviet policy of
19. Persuasion will not lead people to change the language they speak, but it can induce them to
20. The Hajj, one of the “pillars of Islam,” is
21. The world’s largest dominantly Islamic state is
22. Buddhism thrives in all of the areas listed below except
23. Tibetan Buddhism is of the ___________ type.
24. Geomancers, those who know the desires of the spirits of ancestors, dragons and tigers occupying the natural world are associated with
25. The Confucian Classics were the 13 texts that were the focus of education for 2,000 years in
26. Hinduism has not spread by expansion diffusion in modern times, but at one time it did spread by relocation diffusion as a result of
27. Buddhism has its source in
28. The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, who came to be known as the Buddha (enlightened one) was perhaps the first prominent Indian religious leader to
29. The African country where a major cluster of Eastern Orthodox churches survive is
30. Roman Catholic Christianity was spread to Middle and South America by
31. The youngest major religion is
32. Modern-day Shiah Islam dominates a region centered on
33. The diaspora of the Jews resulted from
34. The ideology of Zionism has as its goal
35. The largest constituency of Christianity is
36. Which of the following Balkan association is incorrect?
37. Northern Ireland, scene of Catholic—Protestant conflict, was partitioned by
38. Mel Gibson is a member of a movement which rejects
39. Rabbi Kahane and his followers are examples of
40. Shamanism is a traditional religion, and an intimate part of local culture and society. But not all traditional religions are shamanist. In which of the following regions have both Christianity and
41. Islam failed to convert most of the people practicing a traditional religion?
42. The rise of secularism and decline of religious membership are found in
43. Buddhist pilgrimages to Bodh Gaya is focused on
44. The pagoda is the style of building most often associated with
45. Which of the following U.S. regional association is incorrect?
46. Which is not a feature of Islamic sacred architecture?
47. Which is an example of an intrafaith (boundary) conflict?
48. The vote to partition Palestine was taken by
49. The revolution that destroyed the old order in Ethiopia created a new state on the African map called _____________, dominantly Muslim and culturally distinct from the old empire of which it had been a part.
50. Ethnic cleansing is the term that came into use to describe the attempts to push Bosnian Muslims from their homes and lands.
51. Hindu landscape features focused on water are associated with ritual bathing.
52. In part, Buddhism was founded in opposition to the Hindu caste system.
53. Islam is the second oldest religion in the world.
54. The growth of fundamentalist Islam can be seen in the spread of the adoption of Sharia law.
55. Christianity is an example of a polytheistic religion.
56. In many less developed societies religion acts as a binding force.
57. Islamic architecture borrowed from the Romans to create a distinctive architectural style.
58. Secularism is not a force in Roman Catholic countries.
59. Judaism is a globally dispersed religion.
1. Secularism began to arise with the separation of church and state in Europe. Why was this so? What effects has this had today in changes of the role of tradition and the choice of personal lifestyles? In what way could it be argued that Islamic fundamentalism is a reaction against liberal secularism?
2. Choose a world religion and discuss its place of origin, its modes and routes of spread, and its current pattern of distribution.
3. Briefly discuss the differences between Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Discuss the pattern of distribution of the two types of Islam and highlight examples of conflicts within national borders and across borders.
4. Buddhism is today a fragmented religion. List some of its branches, their location, and their basic beliefs.
5. Discuss the influence of religion in the cultural landscape. Give examples from a number of faiths and regions.
Complete Chapter 6 Summary
Instructions: Write one statement for each paragraph in Chapter six. This will count as a homework assignment. Due on the day stated.
Vocabulary and questions for Chapter 6 will be checked during the next class. No excuses.
Define the vocabulary at the end of chapter 6 and answer the following questions.
Chapter: Chapter06: Language
1. Hawaii and Louisiana are examples with
2. Convergence processes yielding a synthesis of several languages produce a pidgin language. When this language becomes the first language of a population it is referred to as a
3. Official languages such as Spanish and Quechuan in Peru or English and Pilipino in the Philippines reflect
4. Monolingual countries, in which only one language is spoken, are few in number. Which of the following is not one of these countries?
5. Countries in which more than one language are in use are called
6. Which is not true of Quebec?
7. In technically advanced societies there is likely to be
8. Standard Italian is the version of the language spoken in
9. Dialects are most often marked by actual differences in
10. A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs is called a/an
11. Which of the following pairs of languages are not mutually intelligible?
12. There are ___ principal language families of the world.
13. The most widely used Indo-European language today is
14. The language most widely used as a second language by hundreds of millions of people in India, Africa and elsewhere is
15. The predominant languages spoken on Madagascar are not of an African language family, but belong to
16. Latin octo (eight) became Italian otto, Spanish ocho, and French huit. This is an example of ____________ over time in a language family.
17. Two Russian scholars have established the core of what they believe is a pre-Proto-Indo-European language named
18. Subsequent migrations and empire building caused the decline and marginalization of this subfamily which had brought Indo-European languages to Europe 3,000 years ago.
19. Brittany in western France shows the persistence of Breton in the _____ subfamily.
20. The language tree diagram of language divergence has some branches with dead ends. These represent
21. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Leningrad was renamed
22. The greatest concentration of streets memorializing Martin Luther King are found in:
23. The naming of sports stadiums and other facilities for corporations (e.g. Petco Park FedEx Field, Coors Field) is an example of
24. When African colonies became independent countries, one of the first acts of many of the new governments was to
25. The Proto-Indo-European language homeland lies somewhere north of the
26. The two theories of the Proto-Indo-European language dispersal are the conquest theory and
27. The Indo-European language family prevails on the map of Europe. Which country listed below has a language which is not in the Indo-European family?
28. Bantu migrations marginalized this once widespread African language family which now is found only in dry regions of southwestern Africa.
29. The linguistic map of Nigeria reflects extreme fragmentation with nearly ____ languages spoken.
30. Nigeria chose __________ as its official language upon independence.
31. Which development helped with the rise of national languages beginning in the fourteenth century?
32. A language that is the product of a process of convergence which allows speakers of two or more languages to communicate is
33. In an attempt to deal with linguistic as well as cultural diversity, many former African colonies have taken as their official language
34. The systematic study of the origin and meaning of place names is called
35. Clusters of French toponyms in Louisiana, Dutch toponyms in Michigan and Welsh toponyms in Pennsylvania reflect
36. Belgium is a ___________ speaking country.
37. Which of the following European countries has a rather sharp division between Flemish speakers in the north and Walloon speakers in the south?
38. The French government has _________ to protect French language and culture.
39. The crucial element in language is
40. Leopoldville, Congo becomes Kinshasa and Salisbury, Zimbabwe becomes Harare. These are examples of
41. Linguistic extinction occurs when all the speakers of a language either die or choose to speak another language.
42. Euskera, the Basque language, is not related to any other language in Europe.
43. Japan is an example of a monolingual state.
44. The predominantly French-speaking capital city of Belgium (Brussels) is located in the Flemish-speaking northern area of the country.
45. American, Canadian, and Russian governments have all worked to insure the preservation of minority native languages within their borders.
46. Lasker, North Carolina, named for Alaska, is an example of a toponym based upon a mistake.
47. The 1997 revolution in Zaire resulted in the change of the name of the country to Democratic Republic of Congo. This is an example of a post-colonial toponym.
48. Mandarin, the language in and around the Chinese capital Beijing, was chosen as the standardized form of Chinese for the whole country.
49. Even if the written form of a statement adheres to a standard language, the accent of a person who reads it will reveal their regional home.
50. The criteria of mutual intelligibility as determinative of the difference between a dialect and a language is accepted by most linguists.
1. Indo-European languages belong to the largest language family in the world. How and where do linguists believe this family originated and how has it evolved? What linguistic techniques and theories have been used to try to arrive at an answer to this question?
2. Consider the map of European languages and explain the existence and distribution of Celtic and Uralic (Hungarian, Finnish) languages.
3. What is deep reconstruction? What is Nostratic and of which languages is it assumed to be the ancestor?
4. Distinguish between dialect, pidgin language, creole language and a true discrete language. Why is it often difficult to distinguish one from another?
5. Consider some of the place-names (toponyms) in your state or locality. Use the ten types of place-names devised by Prof. George Stewart to classify some of your local place-names. Do his categories overlap in some cases?